Preserving our freedom to collect


The Ancient Coin Collectors Guild has become a driving force in the ongoing effort to protect coin collectors and museums in which coins are stored from being forced to give up these items to foreign governments under the premise the coins are the cultural patrimony of the claimant nation. — Richard Giedroyc, World Coin News April 26, 2010

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Supplemental Bibliography

There are many bibliographies online that highlight the archaeological perspective in the cultural property debate. The bibliography that follows is supplemental to those as it focuses on resources with a more balanced perspective.

Adler, Andrew. "An Unintended and Absurd Expansion: The Application of the Archaeological Resources Protection Act to Foreign Lands." New Mexico Law Review, vol 38, Winter 2008.

Alberge, Dayla. "Treasure hunters — the new heroes of national heritage", The Times, Jan 18, 2007. online at

Alderman, Kimberly. "Ethical Issues in Cultural Property Law Pertaining to Indigenous Peoples", Idaho Law Review, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2009. Online at

Appiah, Kwame Anthony. "Whose Culture is it?" The New York Review of Books, Vol. 53, No. 2, February 9, 2006.

Boardman, John. "Archaeologists, Collectors and Museums", Who Owns Objects? The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Artifacts, E. Robson, L. Treadwell and C. Gosden eds., Oxbow Books, Oxford, 2006, pp. 33-46.

--- "What Were the Elgin Marbles? A look at these sublime works and the British lord who was their saviour" The Wall Street Journal, April 22, 2006, p. P11, online at

Backer, Larry Catá. Harmonizing law in a era of globalization, Carolina Academic Press, 2007.

Balter, Michael. "$200 Million Gift for Ancient World Institute Triggers Backlash", Science, Vol. 311, 31 March 2006, p. 1846.

Barr, Evan. "From Open-Air Bazaar to Buyer Beware: Evolution of the Antiquities Trade", Museum News, November/December 2006. Online at

Bator, Paul M. "An Essay on the International Trade in Art", Stanford Law Review No. 275, 1982, p. 291, followed by The International Trade in Art, University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Bland, Roger. "The Development and Future of the Treasure Act and Portable Antiquities Scheme", Metal Detecting and Archaeology, Suzie Thomas and Peter G. Stone, ed., The Boydell Press, 2009, pp. 63-85.

Bunker, Emma C. "The Protection of the Past by Managing the Present and the Future", Presented at Southern Methodist University, Dallas TX during a conference entitled The Future of the Past: Ethical Implications of Collecting Antiquities in the 21st Century, October 18-19, 2007.

Burnham, Bonnie. comp. The Protection of Cultural Property: Handbook of National Legislations, Paris, International Council of Museums, 1974.

Carman, John. Against Cultural Property: Archaeology, Heritage and. Ownership, London, Duckworth, 2005.

Carpenter, K.A., S. Katyal and A. Riley, “In Defense of Property”, Fordham University, Legal Studies Research Paper No 1220665; University of Denver Sturm College of Law, Legal Studies Research Paper No 08-20; YLJ, 2009.

Chiaviello, Truby and Dominic Rosario. "Who Owns Italian Culture?", Primo, Sep/Oct 2009, p. 22-31.

Cocks, Anna Somers. "Make the citizen your ally if you want to save the nation's past", The Art Newspaper, No. 155, Feb. 2, 2005, p. 26.

Cuno, James. Who owns Antiquity? Museums and the Battle over Our Ancient Heritage, Princeton University Press, 2008.

--- ed. Whose Culture? The promise of Museums and the Debate over Antiquities, Princeton and Oxford, 2009.

DeGraaf, Kimberly, "Should the U.S. Restrict Imports of Chinese Archaeological Materials? An Analysis Under the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act", (2007). Online at

Dorfman, John. "Getting Their Hands Dirty? Archaeologists and the looting trade", Lingua Franca, May/June 1998, pp. 28-36.

Emmerich, Andre. "Let the Market Preserve Art", Wall Street Journal, (Leisure & Arts) Thursday, April 24, 2003.

Fincham, Derek. "Rejecting Renvoi for Movable Cultural Property: The Islamic Republic of Iran v. Denyse Berend", International Journal of Cultural Property 14, 2007, pp. 111-120.

--- "Why U.S. Federal Criminal Penalties for Dealing in Illicit Cultural Property are Ineffective, and a Pragmatic Alternative", Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal, Vol. 25, No. 2, November 2007. Online at

Fitzpatrick, James. "Stealth Unidroit: Is USA the Villain?" New York University Journal of Law and Politics, Fall 1998, Volume 31, No. 1.

--- "A Wayward Course: The Lawless Customs Policy Toward Cultural Properties". New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 15:857, 1983.

Fitz Gibbon, Kate, ed. Who Owns The Past: Cultural Policy, Cultural Property, and the Law, Rutgers University Press, 2006.

--- "The Evolution of US Policy on Cultural Property Issues", Orientations (Letters), January 17, 2005. Excerpt online at

Frigo, Manlio. "Cultural property v. cultural heritage: A "battle of concepts" in international law?", IRRC, June 2004, Vol. 86 No. 854, pp. 367-378.

Geominy, W. "Antikenmuseen in der Zwickmühle", Bewahren als Problem: Schutz archäologischer Kulturgüter, M. Flasher ed., Freiburg, Rombach, 2000, P. 91-100.

Gerstenblith, Wilkie, Josephson, Fitz Gibbon, Kislak. "The Who, What, Why and How of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee (CPAC), IFAR Journal, Vol. 10, Nos. 3&4, 2008/9, pp. 26-49.

Glod, Maria. "For some coin collectors, federal regulations don't add up", Washington Post, May 8, 2010. Online at

Greenfield, Jeannette. The Return of Cultural Treasures, Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Hahn, M. “A Clash of Cultures? The UNESCO Diversity Convention and International Trade Law”, Journal of International Economic Law, 9 (2006) p. 515.

Hamilakis, Yannis. The Nation and its Ruins, Oxford University Press, 2007.

Hawkins, Ashton. "US cultural policy in confusion". The Art Newspaper, No. 139, September 2003.

Hoffman, Barbara T. (ed) Art and Cultural Heritage: Law, Policy and Practice, Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Joffe, Alexander H. "Museum Madness in Baghdad", Middle East Quarterly, Spring 2004, pp. 31-43.

Kahn, Jeremy. "Is the U.S. Protecting Foreign Artifacts? Don't Ask", New York Times, April 8, 2007.

Kampmann, Ursula. "Who owns objects? A view from the coin trade", Who Owns Objects? The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Artifacts, E. Robson, L. Treadwell and C. Gosden eds., Oxbow Books, Oxford, 2006, pp. 61-76.

Kaufman, Jason Edward. "U.S. considers Chinese request for import restrictions", Art Newspaper, Friday, 23 September 2005.

Kennedy, Maev. " 'Unsung heroes of heritage' extolled for unearthing hoard of treasure", The Guardian, Thursday, January 18, 2007.

Kimmelman, Michael. Moderator. "Is It All Loot? Tackling The Antiquities Problem", New York Times excerpts from a New School moderated panel discussion, March 6, 2006, online at

--- "Who Draws the Borders of Culture?", New York Times, May 4, 2010.

King, Dorothy. The Elgin Marbles: The Story of the Parthenon and Archaeology's Greatest Controversy, Hutchinson, 2006.

Kohl, Philip L. and Clare Fawcett. eds. Nationalism, Politics and the Practice of Archaeology, Cambridge University Press, 1995 (2000 reprint).

Krowitz, Edward. "The Battle for the Past", Culture Without Context, Issue 13, Autumn 2003. Online at

Lacayo, Richard. "Who Owns History?", Time, Thursday, Feb. 21, 2008. Online at,8816,1715290,00.html

Lepper, Bradley T. "Public Policy and Academic Archaeology", Clovis and Beyond Conference, October 29-31, 1999, Santa Fe, New Mexico online at

Lufkin, Martha. "International cultural property: how to find your way through the legal maze", Art Newspaper, Thursday, April 30, 2009. Online at

Marti, Josep. "The Cultural Frames Approach as an Alternative View to the Ethnocratic Idea of Culture", Online at

McAlee, James R. "The McClain Case, Customs and Congress," New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 15:813 (1983).

Merryman, John Henry and Albert E. Elsen. Law, Ethics and the Visual Arts, (3rd ed.) Kluwer Law International, London, 1998.

Merryman, John Henry. “International Art Law: From Cultural Nationalism to a Common Cultural Heritage”, New York University Journal of International Law and Politics (NYUJILP),(1983) p.757.

--- "Two ways of thinking about cultural property", The American Journal of International Law, vol. 80, No. 4 (Oct., 1986), 831-853.

--- "The Public Interest in Cultural Property", California Law Review, Vol. 77, No. 2 (Mar., 1989), pp. 339-364.

--- "The Free International Movement of Cultural Property". NYUJILP, (1998-1999) p. 1ff.

--- ed. Thinking About the Elgin Marbles: Critical Essays on Cultural Property, Art and Law, The Hague, 1999.

--- "Cultural Property Internationalism", International Journal of Cultural Property (2005) 12:11-39.

--- ed. Imperialism, Art, and Restitution, Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Messenger, Phyllis M. ed. The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property?, University of New Mexico Press, 1989.

MLA (Museums, Libraries and Archives Council - UK), Cultural Property Advice online at

Özdogan, Mehmet. "Ideology and archaeology in Turkey", Archaeology under fire. Nationalism, politics and heritage in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East, L. Meskell ed., Routledge, 1998, pp. 111-124.

Pearlstein, William G. "People's Republic of China Request for Import Restrictions on Certain Cultural Materials", Comments to Cultural Property Advisory Committee, February 17, 2005, online at

Povoledo, Elisabetta. "Returning Stolen Art: No Easy Answers", New York Times, Oct. 27, 2000. Online at

Radin, Margaret Jane. “Property and Personhood”, Stanford Law Review 34 (1982) p. 957

Roberts, Michael E. "The Failed Promise of Public Archaeology", (Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology, Minneapolis, MN 1995). Formerly at's_saa_paper.htm apparently no longer online.

Rosenbaum, Lee. "Why Does the State Department Favor Import Restrictions on Cultural Property? Why is CPAC's China Recommendation Still Secret?", Arts Journal blog, online at

Rothstein, Edward. "Antiquities, the World is Your Homeland", New York Times, May 27, 2008. Online at

Sayles, Wayne G. and David Welsh, ed. "Coin Collectors and Cultural Property Nationalism", (A paper prepared for the CBA conference Portable Antiquities: Archaeology, Collecting and Metal Detecting, 13-14 March 2010), online at

Schneider, H. and P van den Bossche (eds), Protection of Cultural Diversity from a European and International Perspective, Mortsel, 2008.

Selkirk, Andrew. Who Owns the Past? A Grassroots Critique of Heritage Policy. Adam Smith Institute, London, 1997. Now online at

Skeates, Robin. Debating the Archaeological Heritage, Duckworth, 2009.

Spencer, Peter D. "The Construction of Histories: Numismatics and Metal Detecting", Metal Detecting and Archaeology, Suzie Thomas and Peter G. Stone, ed., The Boydell Press, 2009, pp. 125-136.

Stroup, Richard L. and Matthew Brown. "Selling Artifacts", Regulation, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 4-5. online at

Taylor, Kate. "Shelby White in Center Court at the Met", The Sun, May 1, 2007. Online at

Teicholz, Nina. "You can't bring those antiquities in here", Washington Post, Outlook, December 24, 2000.

Tierney, John. "A Case in Antiquities for 'Finders Keepers' " New York Times, November 17, 2009.

Tompa, Peter K. "Italian Culture Belongs To Us All", Primo, Sep/Oct 2009, p. 32-33.

Tompa, Peter K. and Ann Brose. "A Modern Challenge to an Age-Old Pursuit: Can Cultural Patrimony Claims and Coin Collecting Coexist?, Who Owns The Past: Cultural Policy, Cultural Property, and the Law, Rutgers University Press, 2006, pp. 205-216.

U.S. Senate Report, 97-564. "Implementing Legislation for the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export, and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property", online at

Vincent, Steven. "Commentary: Exposing the radical archaeologists", Orientations 33(1), 2002, p. 74.

--- "A Response from Outside Archaeology", within ‘The Good Collector’: fabulous beast or endangered species?, Public Archaeology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2000, pp. 73–81.

--- "Ancient Treasures for Sale: Do antique dealers preserve the past or steal it?", Reason, April 2005.

--- "The Secret War of Maria Kouroupas", Art & Auction, March 2002, p. 63ff.

Vitale, Katherine D. "The War on Antiquities: United States Law and Foreign Cultural Property", Notre Dame Law Review, Vol. 84, No.4, 2009. Online at

Will, George. "Dimwitted Nod to 'Diversity' ", Washington Post, Wednesday, October 12, 2005, p. A17.

Winter, Frederick A. "Who Owns the Past? Ethical Dilemmas in Contemporary Archaeology", Explorers Journal 69 (1991), pp. 128-133.

Vrdoljak, Ana Filipa. International Law, museums and the Return of Cultural Objects, Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Williams, Brett. ed. The Politics of Culture, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.